Humic acids are complex molecules formed by the breakdown of organic matters in soil. People think that humic acids are fertilizers but it is not so, it can be added to fertilizers to make soil better even if the soil is less fertile. Humic acids are not fertilizers but in fact, it is more of a soil conditioner. It is the end result of ancient plant and animal matter. The best sources of humic acids are the sedimentation layers of soft brown coal, which are known as leonardite. Humic acids are found in high concentration here. It is rich in organic and mineral substances that are essential for plant growth.
Humic acid, when used along with fertilizers has the ability to make the soil improve its texture and water retention. It increases water holding capacity and breaks down crop residues. It builds organic matters in soil and reduces soil erosion. It also stabilizes soil temperature. Humic acid, if applied to sandy soils, can provide organic matter and help retain water, which is essential for the growth of the plant.
Importance of Humic Acid-
The structure of the soil is improved by humic acids. It prevents high water nutrient losses in light, sandy soil. At the same time converts them into fruitful and fertile soil by way of decomposition. In heavy and compact soils, aeration of soil and water retention is improved. It prevents soil cracking, surface water draining, and soil erosion by increasing the ability of top soil to combine or mingle. Helps the soil to loosen and crumble, thus increases aeration or airing of the soil as well as soil work capacity. It increases water holding capacity of soil, which helps to resist drought. Many times it darkens the color of the soil thus help in the absorption of the sun energy.
Humic acid helps to convert elements to plant food when it is added with fertilizer. It retains soluble fertilizers in root zone of the plant thus strengthens the roots as well as the stem. Has a very high ion exchange capacity. It releases nutrients as needed for the plants and stabilizes nitrogen that is required for the plant and also breaks down salt complexes. When humic acids are used with fertilizer it boosts the growth of the soil life, root growth, plant enzyme and plant growth at all stages.
Importance of Fertilizer in Soil-
Soil conditioner that makes poor soil good and good soil better is possible if humic acid is added to the fertilizers. It works best when added with fertilizer to create optimum growing conditions or the finest growing condition. They work as a compliment to the fertilizer and together, humic acid and fertilizer is more fruitful. Humic substances are similar to auxin growth hormone and improve the living cell metabolism or growth. It provides available carbon to microorganism and is safe to the environment and also to the living organism. It liberates carbon dioxide from soil calcium carbonate and enables its use in photosynthesis. It helps to eliminate chlorosis due to iron deficiency in plants. It reduces the availability of toxic substances in soil and makes the soil better for the crops. It neutralize both acid and alkaline in soil.
Fertilizers are essential for better input in any cropping system and when humic acids are added, it helps to improve the efficiency of the fertilizers by increasing the nutrient value and retention. It can add organic matter to deficient soil and increase chlorophyll synthesis and have better seed germination. It also stimulates favorable microbial activity with an overall better and healthier plants and improved yields. Humic acids with organic fertilizer give abundant natural organic substances and help soil and plant with dense humic acid and can optimize the structure of soil to increase the buffering power and fertility.
There are different types of fertilizers with humic acids, such as humic acid liquid, humic acid powder, humic acid round granule and humic acid flakes. Humic acid in liquid foliar helps the plant to uptake and utilize the nutrients in the solution many times more successfully. It is assimilated more easily by the plants to improve the plant metabolism, immunity, root development and improves the supply of plant nutritional elements and also increases the formation of ferments. It promotes the increased accumulation of chlorophyll, sugar, amino acids and improves the effectiveness of nitrogen consumption.
The greatest and the most important thing is that humic acids helps to increase the plant’s ability or capacity to tolerate the stresses of heat drought, cold weather, diseases, insects, and other kinds of environmental problems. It increases general plant productivity, in terms of yield.